Added: Manna Flesher - Date: 03.09.2021 00:47 - Views: 46822 - Clicks: 7275
There are people who believe that we do not need feminism today, but nothing could be further from the truth. Women have struggled for equality and against oppression for centuries, and although some battles have been partly won - such as the right to vote and equal access to education — women are still disproportionally affected by all forms of violence and by discrimination in every aspect of life. It is true that in some areas and on certain issues, there have been improvements: for example, in Saudi Arabia women were allowed, for the first time, to vote and run for office in !
However, on other issues there has been little or no progress: for example, there have been inificant reductions in cases of violence against women. Women continue to receive lower pay for the same work as men in all parts of the world; there are still countries that do not have laws against marital rape and still allow child brides, and practices such as 'honour' killings and female genital mutilation still exist. In fact, being a feminist is not something particular to any sex or gender: there are women and men who consider themselves feminists, some are gay or lesbian, some heterosexual, bisexual or transgender - and some may identify differently.
The concept of feminism reflects a history of different struggles, and the term has been interpreted in fuller and more complex ways as understanding has developed. In general, feminism can be seen as a movement to put an end to sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression and to achieve full gender equality in law and in practice.
In most societies, women were traditionally confined to the home as daughters, wives and mothers, and we are often only aware of women in history because of their relation to famous men. Of course many women throughout history did in fact play an important role in cultural and political life, but they tend to be invisible.
Christine de Pizan wrote about books she had read by famous men, who wrote books about the sins and weaknesses of girls and women, and questioned whether women were really human beings at all, or whether they were more similar to animals. However, she was very unusual in being able to read and write, which was not at all common for women of that time.
In later history, women took part in the French revolution from the very beginning: the demonstrations that led to the revolution started with a large group of working women marching to Versailles to demand not only food to feed their families, but also political change. For that reason, in SeptemberOlympe de Gouges wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen, in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, and with the intention of exposing the failure of the French Revolution to recognise gender equality.
As a result of her writings de Gouges was accused, tried and convicted of treason, resulting in her immediate execution. By the s, women had won the right to vote in most European countries and in North America. At around the same time, women became more active in communist, socialist and social democratic parties because increasing s of women began to work outside the home in factories and offices.
Women were first allowed to go to university in the early 20th century, having both a career and a family. In certain countries, when fascist parties gained power the feminist movement was banned. Liberal feminists wanted better equality laws and reform of institutions such as schools, churches and the media. They also focused on violence against women by men and started to talk about violence in the family, and rape.
The third wave of feminism can be characterised by an increased awareness of overlappingsuch as race, class, gender, sexual orientation. More emphasis was also placed on racial issues, including the status of women in other parts of the world global feminism. This was also a moment when a of feminist non-governmental organisations were establishedbut focusing on specific feminist issues, rather than claiming to represent general feminist ideas.
Third wave feminism actively uses media and pop culture to promote its ideas and to run activitiesfor example by publishing blogs or e-zines.
The main issues that third wave feminists are concerned about include: sexual harassment, domestic violence, the pay gap between men and women, eating disorders and body image, sexual and reproductive rights, honour crimes and female genital mutilation. The term cyberfeminism is used to describe the work of feminists interested in theorising, critiquing, and making use of the Internet, cyberspace, and newmedia technologies in general.
The term and movement grew out of 'third-wave' feminism. These included, for example, it is not an institution, it is not an ideology, it is not an —ism. One example is the online movement metoo inwhich was a response on social networks from women all over the world to the case of Harvey Weinstein, a Hollywood producer who was accused of sexually harassing female staff in the movie industry.
This term is very often present in feminist literature as well as in the media and everyday life, and it is an important concept in understanding feminism. Sexism means perceiving and judging people only on the basis of their belonging to a particular sex or gender.
It also covers discrimination of a person on the same basis. It is important to note that sexism applies to both men and women, however, women are more affected by sexism than men in all areas of life.
Everyday sexism takes different formssometimes not easily recognisable — for example, telling jokes about girls, commenting on the female body objectifying womenreacting to the way women are dressed, asing women easier tasks in Internet games or objectifying women in advertising. The Recommendation defines sexism as. The Recommendation stresses that sexism is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between women and menwhich le to discrimination and prevents the full advancement of women in society.
The Committee of Ministers asks Governments of member states to take measures to prevent and combat sexism and its manifestations in the public and private spheres, and encourage relevant stakeholders to implement appropriate legislation, policies and programmes. Almost everywhere in the world, women are denied their human rights just because of their sex or gender.
However, there are also human rights instruments that take into the specific situation of women in society with regards to accessing or exercising their human rights, or which aim to protect them from violence. Based on: Todd. The UN Security Hello i looking for a good men in all aspects resolution on women, peace and security recognises the fact that armed conflicts or wars affect women differently than men, and highlights the specific role of women in peace building processes.
This resolution was followed by 7 other resolutions subsequently adopted in, and At the level of the Council of Europe, the European Convention on Human Rights obliges member states to respect and promote all human rights in the Convention without discrimination on any grounds, including sex Article 14 of the Convention.
A further treaty, the Revised European Social Charterprovides for equality between women and men in education, work and family life, and calls for positive measures in order to ensure equal opportunities and the right to equal remuneration. Recommendation No. R 79 10 of the Committee of Ministers concerning women migrantscalls on member states to ensure that national legislation and regulations concerning women migrants are fully adapted to meet international standards.
It also recommends that measures should be taken to provide relevant information to women migrants, to prevent discrimination in their working conditions, to promote their socio-cultural integration and to improve their access to vocational guidance and training. R 90 4 of the Council of Europe Committee of Ministers, on the elimination of sexism from languagecalls on member states to promote the use of language reflecting the principle of equality between women and men and to take appropriate measures to encourage the use of non-sexist language, taking of the presence, status and role of women in society.
The Recommendation also calls on member states to bring terminology used in legal documents, public administration and education into line with the principle of equality, and to encourage the use of non-sexist language in the media.
Recommendation No 6 of the Council of Europe Committee of Ministers on the protection and promotion of the rights of women and girls with disabilities asks member states to adopt appropriate legislative measures and to undertake other positive actions likely to encourage the participation of women and girls with disabilities in all areas of life. Noting that women and girls with disabilities may suffer multiple discrimination, the proposed measures cover areas such as education and training, employment and economic status, health care, access to social protection, sexual and reproductive rights, motherhood and family life, access to justice and protection from violence and abuse, participation in culture, sport, leisure and tourism, and raising awareness and changing attitudes.
Cyberfeminism and networked feminism fourth-wave feminism The term cyberfeminism is used to describe the work of feminists interested in theorising, critiquing, and making use of the Internet, cyberspace, and newmedia technologies in general. Sexism This term is very often present in feminist literature as well as in the media and everyday life, and it is an important concept in understanding feminism.
The literature mentions three types of sexism 53 Traditional sexism: supporting traditional gender roles, treating women as worse than men, employing traditional stereotypes which portray women as less competent than men. Defenders of these ideas tend to ignore or deny the difficulties faced by women in society as having an influence on 'competences'. The Recommendation defines sexism as any act, gesture, visual representation, spoken or written words, practice or behaviour based upon the idea that a person or a group of persons is inferior because of their sex, which occurs in the public or private sphere, whether online or offline, with the purpose or effect of: Violating the inherent dignity or rights of a person or a group of persons; Resulting in physical, sexual, psychological or socio-economic harm or suffering to a person or a group of persons; Creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment; Constituting a barrier to the autonomy and full realisation of human rights by a person or a group of persons; Maintaining and reinforcing gender stereotypes.
Themes related to gender and gender-based violence. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women CEDAW The UN Security Council resolution on women, peace and security recognises the fact that armed conflicts or wars affect women differently than men, and highlights the specific role of women in peace building processes.Hello i looking for a good men in all aspects
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